"Whoever Says Industrial Revolution, Says Cot­ton"

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Industrial Revolution started chiefly from the textile industry. In the middle of the 18th century, Europe had two methods of producing yarn: Spinning wheel and Distaff. England imported cotton cloth from India.

Industrial Revolution

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But later on imposed several restrictions upon imports from India when the use of man-power was replaced by machines in textile industry. The idea of planting spinning and weaving machines took a con­crete form due to technical innovations which had been made for many decades in the past.

In 1733, a weaver called John Kay (1704-64) invented a ‘Flying Shuttle’ by which the work of weaving cloth could be done quickly. This raised production. In 1764, James Hargreaves invented “Spinning Jenny” which spun eight yarns at a time. In 1769, Richard Arkwright improved “Spinning Jenny” and made a weaving machine called the water frame which worked with water power and with it the Industrial Revolution started.

In 1779, Samuel Crompton combined the mechanism of spinning Jenny and water-frame and made a new machine called the ‘Mule’. As a result of these inventions, huge stock of fine yarn came into the market and the use of weaving machines increased. In 1785, Edmund cart right invented “Power Loom”.

It could be operated both by steam-power and water- power. After few years, power loom became an integral part of every factory. When the supply of cotton for spinning machines fell short, Ellery Whitely invented a cotton ginning machine called “Cotton gin” (1793). That machine brought revolution in the cotton industry. The chain of inventions also continued in the Nineteenth century. In 1825, Richard Roberts made the first automatic weaving machine. After 1846, fine ready-made clothes were sold in the market on a large scale because an American citizen Alias Hobbe had invented the sewing machine.

Hence cotton played an important part in the development of industrial revolution. It is rightly said if there were no cutoff, there would not have been industrial revolution.

Submitted by : Dr. Alexander, Category : Revolutions, Tag : Industrial Revolution