After reading this article you will learn about the simple and completion type recall tests.
The simple-recall test is here somewhat arbitrarily defined as one in which each item appears as a direct question, a stimulus word or phrase, or a specific direction.
The response must be recalled by the pupil from his past experiences rather than merely identified from a list of suggested answers supplied by the teacher. The typical response to the simple-recall item is short, preferably a single word or phrase.
(i) How many oranges can one buy for 35 cents when oranges cost 7 cents each? Answer:…………..
(ii) Eight is what per cent of 64? Answer:………….
(iii) For each event below give the country, date, and person with whom you associate it;
(iv) What is the chemical name of vinegar? Answer:…………..
1. This type of test is particularly valuable in mathematics and the physical sciences, where the stimulus appears in the form of a problem requiring computation.
2. As it needs very brief answer, does not result in bringing boredom and fatigue.
3. It is easy to construct.
4. It almost completely eliminates guessing as a factor in unreliability and thus minimizes one of the most common criticisms of objective tests.
5. Thus items are sufficiently reliable and highly valid.
6. The familiarity of facts and naturalness is measured.
7. It can serve the diagnostic purpose.
8. Quite comprehensive in covering the syllabus and testing of the realisation of the stipulated objectives.
9. The scoring and interpretation of the responses of the students do not pose any problem.
1. Such questions test only the factual things and memory. The powers of understanding, reasoning, application, interpretation etc. cannot be tested through these questions.
2. Preparation of such items demands great skill and experience on the part of the paper setter.
3. It is costly in terms of time and labour for its preparation.
4. Administration of such tests may also create so many disciplinary and administrative problems. The mode of responses of questions may also drift the students towards picking up unfair means.
5. If not properly constructed, scoring can be subjective.
Rules and Suggestions for Construction:
The simple-recall is one of the most familiar test forms and among the easiest to prepare. The main problem is how to phrase the test situations so that they will call forth responses of a higher intellectual level than mere rote memory, and so that they can be scored with a minimum of expenditure of time and effort.
1. The test item should be so warded that the response is as brief as possible, preferably a single word, number, symbol, or very brief phrase. This will objectify and facilitate scoring.
2. The direct-question form is usually preferable to the statement form.
3. The blanks provided for the responses should be in a column, preferably at the right of the items. This arrangement facilitates scoring and is more convenient for the pupil.
4. The question should be so worded that there is only one correct response. Whenever this is impossible, all acceptable answers should be included in the scoring key.
5. Make a minimum use of textbook language in wording the questions.
The completion test may be defined as a series of sentences in which certain important words or phrases have been omitted and blanks submitted for the pupil to fill in.
A sentence may contain a simple blank, or it may contain two or more blanks. The sentences in the test may be disconnected, or they may be organized into a paragraph.
1. There is more perspiration in the………….. season.
2. The……… is obtained by dividing the……….. by the M.A.
3. The first performance test of Intelligence was prepared by………….
1. Completion-type items are easy to construct.
2. Such type of items are popular and widely used. The pupils are quite familiar with such items.
3. There is no scope of guess work and as such they are more reliable.
4. Such items can measure both knowledge and comprehension (understanding) of the subject matter, while simple recall type items can measure the knowledge aspect only.
1. Such items cannot measure higher levels of objective like application, analysis, synthesis or evaluation.
2. Such items fail to test the reasoning power, power to explain, discriminate, illustrate or estimate.
3. These questions are mostly based on memory.
4. Scoring is a bit more laborious as the blanks are scattered here and there.
Rules and Suggestions for Construction:
1. Avoid vague statements and see that there is a definite answer to the item.
2. Omit the keywords and phrases. Don’t omit trivial details as in the item— “The first battle of Panipath………… fought between Babur………. Ibrahim Lodi.”
3. Don’t omit too many keywords. This will make the question ambiguous and there may be many possible answers.
4. Don’t omit a part of the sentence. A single word, a date, a number or at best of phrase may be omitted.
5. Avoid giving gaps at the beginning of an item.
6. See that the items do not contain any clue—Ex. ‘Paper boats are made of……………. ‘.
7. Make the blanks of uniform length.
8. Avoid using statements directly from the text. It would encourage rote memory than understanding.
9. Prepare a scoring key containing correct answers.
10. Each blank should be given equal credit (marks).