Trend of Growth of Population in India (with statistical information)

Trend of Growth of Population in India!

India is second most populous country in the world, next to China. According to 2001 Census, Indian population was 1027 million while according to 2011 census; India’s population was 1210.2 million. India has 17.2% of the total world population (so one in every six people in the world is an Indian), but in terms of land area, India stands at the seventh place and has only 2.42% of total land area of the world, while land area of U.S.A. is about 4.8%. India’s population is about three times than that of U.S.A., twenty-one times than that of Canada and about six times than that of Japan.

Growth trend of population in India is revealed in Table 4.2.

Table 4.2. Trend of Growth of Population in India.

Census year

Population (in millions)













Steady growth









Rapid high






(684 million)



High growth with



Signs of slowing down.

Table 4.2 shows that during 1921 to 1951 A.D., there was an increase in population by 12% and from 1951 to 1981, the growth showed an increase by 24.75%. Indian population was about 350 million at the time of independence but it zoomed to 1 billion (1000 million) on 11 May, 2000.

Among the Indian states, U.P. has the largest population with nearly 199.6 million people while Sikkim has the smallest population. With reference to population size, Calcutta, with a population of 15.1 million people, is 5th largest city in the world.

Other major cities of the world with population size more than Calcutta are: Mexico City (Mexico)-24.4. Million. San Paulo (Brazil)-23.6 million; Tokyo (Japan)-21.3 million and New York (USA)-16.1 million.

First official census was done in 1891-1901:

India’s population is currently growing at the rate of 1.2 million per month and there is a net annual increase of 16 million, which is even higher than the population of Australia (14.8 million) while in respect of area Australia is about 2.5 times larger in size.

From 683.9 million in 1981, Indian population has grown to 843.9 million in 1991, showing a 23.50% increase. The decennial population growth (1981-91) in absolute terms is 160 million. It is actually a little below than in the decade 1971-81 (24.66%).

The average annual exponential growth in population declined from 2.22% in 1971-81 to 2.11% in 1981-91, 1.8% in 1991-2001 and only 1.58% in 2001-2011 period. Minimal decennial growth is reported from Kerala (13.98%) while maximal decennial growth is reported from Nagaland (58.86%).

In Kerala, total fertility rate is 1.7 per cent as against the country’s average of 2.7 per cent. Decennial population growth was 21.34% during 1991-2001. Kerala still has lowest decadal growth percentage of 9.42%. For long period, the human population remained in lag phase characterized by very slow growth. But the exponential phase of growth of human population started in about 1750 A.D. It is still in exponential phase.

The future of human population growth curve is difficult to predict. It may stabilize and become sigmoid when birth rate and death rates are balanced; or may decline rapidly to form J-shaped growth curve.

Submitted by : Professor Caroline, Category : Population, Tag : Population