This article throws light upon the eight components of educational management. The components are: (1) Educational Planning, (2) Educational Administration, (3) Educational Organisation, (4) Educational Direction, (5) Educational Co-ordination, (6) Educational Supervision, (7) Educational Controlling, and (8) Educational Evaluation.
Being the first aspect in the scope of educational management, planning implies a basic function that is how the aims and objectives are to be realized. Before launching upon a particular educational programme and implementing it the person or authority in-charge or at the helm of affairs is required to take decisions about the methods and strategies for effectively and efficiently achieving the objectives. This means planning has to be done for managing the total educational programme and for this, the basic facts and figures, background, date and profile are necessary.
A plan is conceptualized as a predetermined strategy, detailed skills or programme of action related to the achievement of an objective. It implies some kind of mental activity during the course of analysis or laying out a method of achieving something.
As educational plan for making efforts to plan and bring deliberate change stands in the system of education for achieving identified and relevant objectives. Modern planning which are prevailing now and top most necessity of the prevailing society needs to be democratic, scientific and decentralised. There must be adequate participation of all concerned in the planning process. The decisions which can effect others must be taken in consultation with others. “Grassroot Planning” is therefore encouraged which means planning from bottom, not from top. Decisions need be taken from within not from without.
Nothing should be imposed from top, but should come from bottom. In view of the objectives and size, the plans may be long term, medium term and short term. This kind of planning usually promotes high moral, enthusiasm and motivation for work and success of the institutions or organisations.
According to Hagman and Schwartz, “Planning selects among alternatives, explores, routes before travel begins and identifies possible or probable outcomes or action before the executive and his organisation is committed to any. Educational planning has been one of the early instruments of independent governments. Resources have to be used as effectively and systematically as possible.
Today, educational planning is an absolute requirement. The complexities of modern technology in the prevailing society have given rise to the need for planning in education. Educational planning is a process utilized by an administrator while performing the role of a leader, decision maker, change agent and so on. It is a basic management task and a meas of achieving higher levels of effectiveness.
The nature and characteristics of Educational Planning are as follows:
a. Goals and objectives:
Educational planning is a means of creating relevant present and future goals and objectives for any educational institution or organisation.
b. Team Work:
Modern educational planning doesn’t put stress on the fact that only the top administrator of the government should be involved in planning. Rather planning should be the responsibility of all people concerned with the desired change. For this a team of experts in the related area, responsible people and those who will implement the plan should determine the goals and appropriate ways of attaining them.
Educational planning is the preparation of pre-courses in the decision making process. It has to help for determining the optional to be taken. While educational administration is mostly decision making, planning in education is only the other side of it.
Educational planning describes or defines determining events, needs and conditions of future time. It implies forecasting or projection of important factors in education such as number and types of pupils and expansion of facilities needed for them.
e. Social and Economical goals:
Modem educational planning emphasizes that the goals of a democratic society should be social and economic in nature concerning with the welfare and progress of all citizens rather than the self-centred or selfish goals of some special interest groups. The expected goals of the society and needs of children and young pupils in the schools and colleges should be the broad frame of reference.
Modern educational planning anticipates probable developments and needed change in future, much ahead of time so that proper facilities, supporting media and required resources for implementing the planned change may be secured. Hence, relevant changes and efforts are avoided and the changes are effectively implemented.
g. Remedial Measures:
This nature or characteristic of modern educational planning indicates that it is remedial and guidance oriented in nature and approach. With appropriate planning procedure it is possible to identify maladjustments or deficiencies in the system that causes educational problems. Identifying causes or the educational problems and suggesting relevant solution is the main objective of educational planning.
h. Choice of best alternative:
Modern educational planning is a logical, systematic and scientific process different from the elementary kinds of procedure utilized in the part of bringing about changes in the system of education.
Educational planning or modem educational planning has the following principles:
1. Educational planning must be one aspect of general national planning.
2. Research is planning based on system analysis.
3. Planning must be a continuous process.
4. Planning should find a definite place in educational organization.
5. Planning should take into consideration resources and establish conditions of work.
6. Planning must be realistic and practical.
7. Planning must ensure active and continuing participation of all interested individuals and groups.
8. The content and scope of planning should be determined by the needs of the individuals and groups to be served.
9. Planning should utilize the services of specialists without allowing them to dominate.
10. Planning should provide opportunity for all persons and groups to understand and appreciate the plans.
11. Planning should provide for continuous evaluation.
12. Planning should have opportunity for modification for further action.
Educational administration is another vital task of educational management so far its scope is concerned. It plays a vital role in making management of every educational programme grand success. It is a specialized set of organisational functions whose primary purpose is to ensure the efficient and effective delivery of relevant educational services as well as implementation of legislative policies through planning, decision making and leadership behaviour. This keeps an organisation to make focus on predetermined objectives of the programme or system.
According to Graham Balfore, “Educational Administration is to enable the right pupils to receive the right educational administration is to enable the right teacher at a cost within the means of the state under conditions which will enable the pupils best to profit by their training.”
J.B. Sears, to him “Educational Administration contains much that we mean by the word government and is closely related in content to such words as supervision, planning, oversight, direction, organisation, control, guidance and regulation.”
The term educational administration is characterised in the following grounds:
1. Making all efforts and agencies work together in joint venture.
2. Assisting in the realization of the aims and objectives of education.
3. Rendering service to society in its progress and progress of individuals.
4. Educational Administration is concerned with diverse human beings, the teachers, students, parents and public and co-ordination of their efforts.
5. It is concerned with all those activities undertaken and fullest utilization of resources for education.
Educational administration constitutes the following aspects in its jurisdiction as its scope:
2. Assuring Public
3. Finance and Accounting
4. Personnel, and
In education it means realization of the goals of education which have been set up by society. Hence educational administration has to interpret the aims of education to the educational workers so that they may shape the final product of education in the desired form and behaviours.
b. Assuring Public:
It is the business of educational administration to define the operations needed to make them known and to promote them so that the final educational product is good for public use.
c. Finance and Accounting:
Educational administration is also concerned with receiving and spending money necessary for the operation and activities of the educational machinery. It should measure and record the monetary and other resources invested in the educational enterprise and also evaluate the inputs and outputs.
Personnel is the framing and operation of policies and procedures for recruitment of workers and maintainance of goodwill and personal relationships among them. The purpose behind it is to ensure fullest interest, co-operation, moral and loyalty of all the persons working in the organization. This is specially important for the educational enterprise where the whole work is centred round the impact of one type of human beings, the teachers upon another types of human beings and the students.
It is an important activity of educational administration, which ensures the close inter-relation and integration of all the functional activities of the organization such as personnel, finance and production for desired results. Such integration has to be brought about not only of the structure of the organisation but also of the attitudes and efforts of the workers, so that all of them pull together in the direction of the desired goals and achieve them.
Educational Administration discharges the following functions:
1. To delegate authority and responsibility.
2. To strengthen local initiative and local control.
3. To secure the greatest return from the money spent.
4. To secure the goodwill of personnel, public education department and other social agencies and institutions.
5. To implement a democratically determined programme.
6. To determine policies and implement them.
7. To utilise special capacities of personnel and material resources.
An organisation be defined as stable pattern of interaction, among conditions or groups having a collective identity (a name and a location) pursuing interest and achieving given tasks and co-ordinated through a system of authority. Organisations are social units deliberately constructed and reconstructed to seek specific goals.
Here it is essential to mention that the educational organisations or institutions are also considered as the social organisations. So schools, colleges, universities and training institutions may well be considered as social organisations. Educational organisation means two things; one is the educational institution and the other is organisation of resources. Let us discuss the organisation of resources first and then the educational organisation or institution.
All types of resources meant for the educational programme are organised or made available in an organisation or institution for realizing the educational objectives or goals that are prefixed. Because poor organisation leads to wastage and bad outcomes.
Interpersonal relations need to be improved for making an organisation effective and adequate. Any formal organisation has to be strengthened and supported by informal network of personal contacts and relations. There should be decentralisation of facilities, delegation of powers and greater autonomy among the personnel.
The hierarchical structure of administration is to be vested upon every person involved in the programme. It is desirable to create the feeling of involvement and to develop adequately various advisory and consultative services within the organisations. Here the educational organisation means the school organisation.
The school organisation is a combination of two words. One is school and the other is organisation. In order to understand the meaning of school organisation, it is essential to understand the meaning of school and organisation separately.
But as our concern is to know the features of school organisation, let us know it’s different features.
1. All teachers without any discrimination should get the same facilities.
2. Teachers should get equal pay for equal work and similar qualifications.
3. Provisions for retirement and the corresponding benefits should be the same for all teachers.
4. Rules for the appointment of teachers should be the same.
5. Conditions of service should be the same despite differences in management.
It is essential that there must be an authority or an order or a policy for providing direction to the management of every educational programme and for taking decisions in solving the problems. For this direction is necessary for giving leadership in order to implement the programmes and carrying out the entire management.
Democratisation of management seeks to encourage the pride, enjoyment and growth among the individuals working in the organisation. Each individual must work according to his needs, interests and capabilities.
For making smooth management of every educational programme for resulting in adequate realization of its goals or objectives, there is need of ensuring co-ordination and co-operation among the multifarious resources. Through this coordination all facilities will be unified and all services are harmonized. So through this aspect of educational management different kinds of resources especially human resources have to be interrelated or co-ordinated for utilizing the resources properly in an effective manner.
Educational administration and supervision are now regarded as the total process of making any educational programme a grand success. For this, there is the need of ensuring and maintaining good inter-personal relationships between the administrator and supervisor, the supervisor and teachers, teachers and pupils, school and community etc.
Educational supervision is the means to co-ordinate stimulate and direct the growth of the teachers, to stimulate and direct the growth of every individual pupil through the exercise of his talents towards the achievement of richest goals.
In the modern perspective, educational supervision is an expert technical service primarily concerned with studying and improving the conditions that surround learning and pupil growth. So educational supervision is now conceived as process which has for its purpose for the general improvement of the total teaching-learning situation.
The following are the characteristics of educational supervision in relation to the management of an educational programme:
1. It is a creative and dynamic expert technical service.
2. It provides leadership with extra-knowledge and superior skills.
3. It promotes co-operative educational efforts in a friendly atmosphere.
4. It stimulates the continuous growth of teachers and development of pupils.
5. It gives co-ordination, direction and guidance to teacher’s activities.
6. It helps in achievement of appropriate educational aims and objectives.
7. It improves instruction and the teaching-learning situation.
Controlling is exercised through proper technique that is the evaluation. Controlling is not similar to evaluation but it is meant to fulfill the purposes of evaluation. In order to fulfill the purposes of evaluation, the techniques of control are the policies, the budget, auditing, time table, curriculum, personal records etc.
Educational controlling involves the human elements in relation to the management of an educational programme. Both men and women involved in the educational programme should have to discharge their duties efficiently and effectively by being controlled.
Being the last but not the least aspect of educational management, educational evaluation is an integral part of it as it determines the degree of realisation of educational objectives or goals as well as the effectiveness of it; for this there must be evaluation short-term or long-term, periodic or continuous and formal or informal.
This is necessary for bringing about improvement as desired in the management of educational institutions in the light of past experiences that may be failure or success or both. It is also desirable that both internal and external agencies need be involved in evaluating the achievement and performance of the individuals concerned with management.
Various systems and subsystems should be assessed and reviewed from time to time. For this evaluation of students achievement and teachers performance should be done in a comprehensive and continuous way.
At last in the light of above discussion on the scope of educational management it can be strongly said that the management of any educational programme will be meaningful and successful if there will be proper co-ordination and integration among its different aspects. The reason is that all these aspects are interrelated and interdependent.