Brief outlines of the four different stages of educational guidance for every education are discussed in this article.
At this stage the guidance has to help the child now to adjust himself to the new life of the school which is some what important than the home and family. At this stage, guidance is directed more definitely towards the development of personality, social behaviour and problems concerning life. The classroom teacher performs the functions of both the teacher and the counselor. He can very easily discover the children who are dependent, shy, easily frightened, over aggressive, quarrelsome, gifted or otherwise.
Besides, school norms are also very helpful in discovering other characteristics. But sympathetic counselling, by organizing activities, and by making contact with home the teacher gradually helps the shy and over-dependent child to overcome his weak points. It has been aptly said that “every teacher is a guidance worker” and guidance is occurring minute by minute, hour by hour and day by day in every classroom of every school building. So guidance at this stage or level should help the child to make a satisfactory transfer from home to school.
Educationists from time immemorial to till date have emphasized the importance of the early years of child’s life in the development of habits, attitudes, interests and personality qualities which would be required to live a healthy and well-balanced personality. The level of foundation or base-box development of well-balanced personality is done at this stage of education. For this a comprehensive educational programme at this stage must consist of not only instructions but also activities and programmes which aim at development of good and healthy habits and attitudes.
For this the potentialities of the child are to be identified, his talents are to be explored and proper opportunity or facility be provided for his development. For this a programme of education in guidance should be organised. Besides the child must be helped to develop his power of thinking and understanding. He has also to be oriented to know modes of living and thinking which will become the main ground of his habits and attitudes. Further he is to be helped to adjust himself to an expanding environment both within the school and outside. The child at this stage must be helped to explore his talents and to understand himself.
Hence for all these purposes in relation to educational guidance a well planned educational guidance programme must be organised and implemented for the developmental needs and requirements of the children or students. This guidance programme is to be planned with the inclusion of curricular and co-curricular activities to develop in a systematic way, his basic potentialities which would be important from the point of view of the individual, as well as from that of the society.
The functions of educational guidance programme at this stage are given below:
1. The programme must help the children to make a good beginning and to plan intelligently of their education.
2. To get the best out of their education and to prepare pupils how to enter the secondary schools.
3. The guidance programme can be used in identifying learning difficulties and the special needs of children.
4. It has to help the potential drop-outs staying in school, in guiding pupils to develop an insight into the world of work.
5. The educational guidance programme at this stage has to assist the children in planning for the future education and training.
For doing all these things properly a sound, conducive and favourable learning climate is to be created and developed in the educational institution or school.
The secondary level of education is the coordinating level of education between primary and higher or tertiary stage of education. For some pupils or students it becomes the terminal stage of education. The reason is that the pupils at this level of education face a number of problems such as problems related to learning, emotional problems relating to physical and social needs and problems relating to educational choice.
Thus, as there is possibility of arising different types of problems there is the need of organizing different types of guidance programmes in order to solve these problems. Hence, personal, vocational and educational guidance-all these three are necessary at this level of education. At present our concern is to have a look on educational guidance.
For this the aims and objectives of educational guidance are as follows:
Aims and objectives of educational guidance at Secondary School Stage:
1. To assist the child secures information regarding the possibility and desirability of further schooling.
2. To acquaint students with the nature and purpose of the higher secondary school or +2 curriculum through;
(а) Class talks
(b) Exploratory and try out courses.
3. To assist them make an assessment of their own abilities, skills and interests and to relate them with the curricular courses in the higher secondary school or +2 stages.
4. To help the child to know the purpose and functions of the different types of schools.
5. To enable the pupil or child to know in detail the courses offering in the school that he might attain.
6. To assist him to know the requirements for entrance into the school of his choice.
7. To acquaint the pupils with the vocational implications of the various courses of study.
8. To help the pupils to adjust themself to the curriculum, the school and the social life connected with it.
In this objective we may include:
(a) To help them in the selection of subjects.
(b) To help in the selection of books for each subject.
(c) To help them in developing study habits.
(d) To help them in making satisfactory progress in various school subjects.
(e) To help them in selecting hobbies.
(f) To help them in the selection of co-curricular activities.
(g) To help them in knowing the availability of scholarships, loans etc.
(h) To help them to find out their tastes, aptitudes and interests.
(i) To help them to built good social relationships.
9. To inform the pupils about the schools in the locality or region which offers some particular course or courses not available in other schools.
10. To acquaint the pupils about the various opportunities available after finishing the school career.
11. To provide information about polytechnical or university education which the school leavers may like to take up.
12. To help the students to find out their physical, mental and emotional handicaps and then to treat them accordingly.
In addition of these, aims and objectives of educational guidance there is the necessity of other things which are discussed here.
At this stage the pupils cannot decide between what to do and what not to do. Sometimes the children behave haphazardly. At this stage they show liking and disliking towards certain things, towards different subjects, towards teachers and even schools. Their abilities reach to a maximum point at this stage.
The educational environment which determines the intellectual growth and adjustment pattern must be suitable to the development of the children. The children at this stage must be helped to develop independent thinking, reasoning and problem solving. They must be helped to build healthier thought, habits and actions which would enable them to live efficiently in this world. Now more emphasis is given on vocationalisation of education.
The reason is to make every child or pupil self-sufficient or self-reliant from the very beginning of their life. Accordingly, the government on the basis of Adishesai Committee, 1978, has made the provision of vocationalisation of secondary education as a result of which our young generation must be oriented in certain vocations at the school stage. Most of our children are ignorant of the needs for planning of the future. The vocational aspiration of the child must be identified at the school stage.
The children must be acquainted with the vocational implications of various school subjects. Besides this children must be trained in democratic living. As a result of which they will act as useful and responsible democratic citizens in their future life. For this they must be encouraged and facilitated to participate in different co-curricular and even in activities outside the school. Besides special guidance be given to the gifted, the backward children and physically and mentally handicapped children.
The type of educational guidance provided to the pupils for sorting out their educational problems should be rich in quality. Because this type of guidance provided at this stage makes a pupil how to become a full-fledged being in his educational career in particular and in his life in general. The students who need guidance at this stage are mature with developed personality and behaviour.
They are aware of their rights and responsibilities. At this stage along with the educational guidance they get a complete picture about the reality of life and they aim at achieving these realities or goals of life. For this they have to tackle the problems they encounter at this level. The pupils at this stage therefore must be provided educational facilities for utilizing their abilities and skills to the wider extent as there is the need for creating adequate reading facilities. Good tutorial system can be organised to give proper direction and guidance to needy students.
The students at this stage must be oriented about the purpose and scope of higher studies which would help them to stimulate their studies. For this there should be the plan of organizing seminars, workshops, conferences, regular talks and discussions on important emerging problems and issues relating to education. Here it has been highlighted with proper stress or emphasis that lectures and discussions on vocational topics, courses of studies, job opportunities can be organised.
The institutions of higher education must make provision for guidance services. For this it is essential on their part to organize these guidance programmes so as to guide the young students in dealing with their educational and psychological problems. In order to realize this each college must have guidance bureau department with a trained counselor for the purpose of providing information and organizing services to and for students as and when necessary.