Some of the most important concepts related to socialization are as follows: 1. Anticipatory socialization 2. Re-socialisation 3. Reverse Socialisation.
Anticipatory socialisation refers to the process of socialisation in which a person ‘rehearses’ for future positions, occupations and social relationships. Sometimes, a person may aspire to belong to a group and, before actually entering the group; he may prepare himself by anticipatory socialisation.
Socialisation to a new role or position in life which requires a dramatic shift in attitudes, values, behaviours and expectations learned in the past is known as re-socialisation. This process requires discarding of former behaviour pattern and accepting new ones as part of a transition in one’s life. The changes people undergo during adulthood usually require adaptation to new situations. The person has to adopt an entirely new set of meanings to understand his or her new life.
The process of re-socialisation occurs throughout the human life cycle. Occupation, marriage and retirement are a few important events of life when a person has to adopt a new set of norms and values. The most dramatic type of voluntarily (or sometimes involuntarily) re-socialisation occurs in institutions like the armed forces, prisons, convents and mental hospitals.
People entering these institutions are totally stripped of their old selves. They have to live in a highly controlled social environment under a new set of rules and adopt a new role as a military person, prisoner or mental patient. Goffman (1961) has termed this situation as ‘mortification of self.
Reverse socialization refers to the process whereby people normally being socialised are at the same time socialising their socialisers. Children, who are viewed as objects of socialisation, function sometimes within the family as agents of socialisation, themselves.
They are often very active socialisers of their parents. Sometimes, a baby causes others (mother, father etc.) to change their behaviour patterns. Young people may affect the way their parents (or another adults) dress, eat and even think.