Read this article to learn about the eleven major activities under Human Resource Management (HRM)!
For effective human resource management human resources requirement are to be considered while planning for the organisation. Increased attention is to be provided to the human resources requirement and their development. These are to be given priority. For expansion of the plant or starting new ventures the top management has to consider the human resource requirement.
The kind, number and quality of human resources have to be considered and decision accordingly to be taken. The method of their procurement, appraisal, salary structure and other benefits and rewards, health and safety provisions are to be planned and decided while planning for the organisation.
Organisational planning must be closely integrated with the human resources requirements of the organisation. The organisational strategy for launching quality product is to be linked with the HR needs, their appraisal system, training and development, salaries and other benefits that will improve quality of the product and put as ahead with the rivals in the competition. The strategic human resource management is the clue to success in business.
Human resource planning is one of the most important activities of the human resource management. Human Resource Planning helps in meeting the requirements for the organisation. It enables the management to make forecast for human resources and to design the policies for their procurement in the broader interests of the organisation and to make sure the position of the staff to meet the challenges of the changing business and industrial environment.
In the modern times everything is fluid what will happen tomorrow, nobody knows. Everything is changing with greater speed than before. The economy, technology, number and quality of workforce etc. are undergoing sea changes.
Organisations are therefore to make planning of human resources carefully to meet the challenges thrown out by these factors. Job analysis, job description and job specification are the part of human resource planning. It helps the organisation to decide on training and development of the present staff, their salary structure, other benefits, promotional channel which enable the staff to plan for their careers and anticipate the future requirements of the staff for the organisation.
Acquiring human resources is yet another activity of Human Resource Management. It is to be done very carefully because everything depends on the people. Quality of the product and prestige of the organisation depends on them. Organisation has to acquire the people with multidimensional skills and experiences. The young people have to be preferred at every level of the organisation. Organisation must nurture a culture that attracts people towards it.
Organisation may go for global recruitment to attract better talent and men and women with capabilities. Higher starts to talented people may attract them. Human resource recruitment plan should be tailored in such a fashion that it suits to the organisational objects. Managers having functional expertise must be recruited who can integrate with the attitude and culture of the organisation. Human resource manager must perform the head-hunter’s job in inducting suitable and most fit persons for the organisation.
Psychographic testing techniques e.g.: Thomas Profiting, Myers-Brigg may be used for recruitment. These tests help in knowing behaviour and psychology of the candidates. There are many techniques to acquire people for the organisation. It is up to the enterprise to make a choice of suitable method for acquisition of human resources. It depends on the size and type of organisation.
Good performance by the employees creates a culture of excellence which benefits the organisation in the long run. This activity includes evaluation of jobs and people both, managing gender bias, career planning, devising methods of employee satisfaction etc. The efforts are to be made to integrate the individual aspirations with the objectives of the organisation. Organisation has to make clear a way for career advancement for talented and hard working people and as for as possible plateauing of their career should be avoided.
Fear of any kind from the minds of the employees should be removed so that they give the best to the organisation. Allow free flow of information. Communication network should be designed in such a way that no one should be allowed to become a hurdle. This enables the managers to take correct decisions and that too quickly.
Motivating the people at work play a magic. Stimulating people to work hard is the most important phenomenon. Innovative and creative instinct has to be recognized. This recognition pays. Liberal attitude towards employees and subordinates work wonders. Motivation is an important phenomenon. Human resources should be treated with utmost care. For better returns the motivation of employees and subordinates become essential.
In order to improve the performance of individuals and groups, training and development activities are undertaken. The rapid change in technology has increased the importance of training and development. In some of the organizations this activity is continuously undertaken.
There is a separate cell for training and development. Human resource development is a part of human resource management and is constantly undertaken. It is the crucial aspect of HRM. Training and development is also considered as a process to foster career development of the employees at every level of the organisation.
This activity cannot be overlooked because all the employees’ juniors and seniors and new comers need to be trained and developed. New employees need training in the initial stages of their employment known as orientation training. There are various methods of training and development. Organisations have to make choice of suitable method and design a training programme for their employees and executives.
Compensation and benefit is an activity that determines salary and wage structures, other rewards and benefits to be paid to the staff of the organisation. The suitable rewards and benefits system increases the morale of the employees and ultimately improvement in their performance. The absence of these adversely affects the performance of the staff. Non-financial rewards such as recognition of the work performance, praise, the privileges and rights also play dominant role in improving performance of the employees.
Such recognition of an employee in public comes through awarding trophies, certificate of appreciation, cash reward for him and his family members’ achievement. This system is adopted by a number of companies in our country although it was first introduced by an American company Xerox in 1980s.
There are many other non-monetary rewards in vogue such as giving employees a treat in the form of lunch with the managing director, birthday present, arranging picnics, distributing watches, diaries, use of company facilities, greetings on the eve of festivals and new year, providing good and well furnished office, giving more responsibility, providing computers and telephones, special assignment, job rotation and so on.
All these motivate the employees to give better performance at no costs. Above all it creates an environment which set the stage ready for introducing change. Monetary incentives are the direct booster of performance. These incentives based on performance of the employees. A special bonus incentive plan is meant for the performance of executives. Monthly reports are prepared for group performance and monetary rewards are given. For success of the system transparency should be introduced. Along with incentives, the disincentives also should be introduced for non-performance.
Making adequate provisions for health and safety of the employees, build a strong workforce. The employees must be protected from the physical danger and health hazards by providing for their safety at the workplace and health care centres for them and their families. The activity also includes the protection of the surrounding community from pollution and other toxic substances emitted from the factories. The protection of health and safety of human resources is the major responsibility of the organisation from the social and humanitarian point of view.
The awareness among organizations has increased in this respect. A growing concern is expressed by the government also. Several acts are framed and made legally applicable to each organizations in the country. Health and safety issues are crucial therefore organizations must take due cognizance of the same to avoid further complications.
Organisation development is an activity that determines the strategies of the organisation to improve the performance of employees and their satisfaction and make the organisation effective by creating an environment favourable for introducing change. This activity needs to frame a strategy the strategy in this regard varies according to the size and type of organisation. The object is to increase the performance of individuals and groups, increase the level of cooperation and teamwork in the organisation. The thrust centre is the result i.e. quality and quantity of products and services, working conditions in the organisation.
Organisations encourage employee’s participation in decision-making. Participation increases the performance of employees and the productivity provided participation is active on the part of employees. Many benefits accrue to the organisation from assured and active participation. Management has to develop the skills of participation among employees. After manager is satisfied the particular employee is fully developed and competent to take decision he can pass on some authority to him so that he can take decisions. This process should be gradual.
More and more information should be shared with the employees to make them fit to take decisions and participate in management. Effective participation is not that easy. Employee union’s support in this respect is also necessary without which the participation is a far cry. Collective bargaining plays a crucial role in human resources participation in management. It is a process of coming to a formal agreement between workers and management as regards wages and other benefits, working conditions, working hours, health, safety, grievance procedure and other such matter relating to workers interests. This process can be utilized to negotiate the mode and kind of employee participation. It helps in building up industrial democracy.
Safety and health of the human resources must be given top priority. The provisions relating to these speak for overall health of the organisation. Adequate provisions for safety and health protects the employees from accidents in the factories and different types of ailments. The employees must receive adequate protection from pollution and other toxic materials. Government has made many provisions in this regard which have to be followed by the industrial establishments. Increasing awareness among employees and other people have also forced the establishments to have sufficient safety and health provisions.
The various kinds of systems are provided to safeguard the health of the people at work and save them from industrial hazards. This is the prime responsibility of an organisation. Safety and health provisions play a great role in human resource development. It keeps their morale high as they feel worry free because adequate and sufficient measures are taken by the industrial unit to protect them from any untoward accident and any illness.
There are many other activities to be performed by the human resource management which include better communication facilities, welfare measures, residential accommodation, education for children and so forth. Each HRM activity revolves round human resources. Human resource development forms the crux of human resource management. All the activities or functions of human resource management are meant for their development, maintenance and safety.
Human resources have become all the more important. They have become the centre point of all the activities. It is because they who are responsible for production, its quality and size; marketing and its extent and the profit earned by the company. It is, therefore, pertinent for all the organisations in general and the country in particular to provide the first attention to the development and management of human resources. It is the human resources who provide managers, physicians, academicians, administrators, engineers, architects, artists, technicians, politicians, sociologists, psychologists, economists, workers and other technicians even maid servants. Here the country’s role comes.
All the human resources have to be developed because nation’s progress and prosperity depends on them. As for industrial organisation is concerned it is its prime responsibility to develop and manage human resources effectively to have positive gain and growth. Whatever the size of the organisation the principal processes of human resources must be managed. Large size of the organisation requires more human resource specialists to manage human resources effectively.
Large corporate bodies have now realized the importance of human resources and that they should manage human resources with a difference to remain in competition. The modern machines and information technology is purchased to increase the productivity. The labour management relations are being looked after seriously by the management. Motivation of employees at work is being stressed. The most of the managers pay more attention to the HRM. They are making innovations in HRM for they know that they get lucrative returns on their investment. The explosion in education is bringing highly qualified individuals.
These people don’t accept the traditional authority relationship. There is therefore a need for participative type of management where their views must be honoured while making decisions. The more opportunities for their growth are given to them. Career planning has become the order now.
Previously human resources were considered burden which add to cost but now things are changed and they are now considered as assets. Now the investment in human resources does not add to cost but to profit. The entirely new approach is being adopted by the corporate bodies for managing human resources which is a healthy and welcome change.