Important Natural Regions which are present in the world are listed below:
A natural region is a geographical unit which contains countries or parts of countries, where the conditions of temperature, rainfall, and cultivated vegetation and consequently human activity are almost uniform.
The characteristics of the hot lands which lie roughly between latitude 0° and 30° North and South of the Equator, are controlled by the seasonal movements of the sun. In general it may be said that “the rain follows the sun”.
Equatorial type of climate lies above 0° and 5°North and South of the Equator. The chief regions are the Amazon basin of South America, Congo basin and Guinea or West Coast of Africa, part of Sri Lanka, Indonesia and Malaysian Peninsula.
The temperature is high all the year round, with a low range of variation. Rainfall is very heavy all the year round. The natural vegetation is dense forest. Creeping plants and parasites are common. Products are rubber, oil, palm and valuable hardwood such as ebony, mahogany, etc.
This type of climate lies about 5° North and 5° South of the Equator to the Tropics. It includes Venezuela, Guinea, the Sudan, Kenya, Brazil, Angola, Zimbabwe and Tanzania. All these areas are sufficiently hot throughout the year. Rain falls for a short period in summer followed by a long dry season.
The natural vegetation consists of scattered trees and stretches of grassland – typical parkland known as Savanna. Animals are zebra, buffalo, antelope, giraffe, etc., and some of the carnivorous are lion, tiger etc. The natives of these regions are engaged in hunting, keeping of cattle and in agriculture.
This type of climate lies roughly 29°-30° North and South of the Equator on the western side of continents. The chief regions are the Sahara and Arabian deserts, the Kalahari Desert, South California and North-Western Mexico, North Chile and Western Bolivia and West Australia.
The trade winds after blowing over extensive land masses bring no rains. The sparse vegetation consists of thorny bushes. Human activity is confined to oases and wells, where the date palm grows.
Chief regions in this type of climate are India, Pakistan, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, South China, Sri Lanka, the Philippines and North Australia. The characteristic features of this region are that the temperature is comparatively high throughout the year, and there are two clearly marked wet and dry seasons.
Rain falls in summer. Where the rainfall is more than 40 inches, forests grow in abundance; cultivated crops are maize, cotton, sugarcane, indigo, tobacco, wheat, rice, millets, jute, oilseeds, etc. This region is the most densely populated region in the world. The chief occupation of the people is agriculture.
This region lies 30° – 45° North and South of the Equator on the western side of the continents. The areas included in this region are: countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, California, the South-West corner of the Union of South Africa, the South-West Australia and South-East Australia.
Summers are hot and winters are mild and rainy. The annual rainfall is about 20 inches to 40 inches. The natural vegetation – olive, cork, oak, vine, etc. It is a region of 3 W’s, i.e., wheat, wool, and wine.
Sheep and goats are reared because of good pastures. Population is dense and the chief occupations are agriculture, rearing silk worms, rearing of sheep and goats, and fruit canning.
This region lies in the interior of the great land masses. It includes the prairies of North America, the steppes of Europe and Asia, the Pampass of South America, the Velds of Africa and the downs of Australia. The summers are warm and winters are very cold. Rainfall is nearly 20 inches which takes place in spring and early summer.
In winter there is snowfall. The steppe lands in the Southern Hemisphere are narrow and are affected by the sea, they are essentially grasslands. The products are wheat, barley, maize, etc. Sheep and goats are reared. The people in the Asiatic steppes are known as Kirghis by race, and are nomadic, but they are now fast becoming settled agriculturists.
This climate includes the area of South-East United States, North and Central China, Korea and South Japan, South-East Brazil, Uruguay, Natal, New South Wales, Coastal Plain, Victoria, North of New Zealand. The climate of this region is almost like the monsoon region although the winters are colder.
Natural vegetation – oak, beech, mulberry, bamboo, camphor etc. The cultivated crops are rice, tea, sugarcane, maize, cotton, tobacco, millets and wheat. Chief occupation of the people is agriculture and silk rearing.
This type of climates includes the area of British Columbia, North-West Europe including British Isles, South Chile, Tasmania and South Islands of New Zealand. The characteristics of this climate are: (i) cool summer and moderate winter, (ii) low range of temperature, (iii) rainfall – well distributed throughout the year.
This region is the home of deciduous forests as oak, beech, birch, elm etc. Products: wheat, barley, oats, rye flax, beet-sugar, etc. The countries in this region are industrially advanced, and agriculture is carried on by scientific methods. People on the whole are engaged in different industries.
This region includes Siberia, northern part of Russia, Scandinavia, Canada (except St. Lawrence Valley). Winters are extremely severe and the temperature falls below 0°F. Summers are warm.
Rainfall occurs is summer. Natural vegetation consists of coniferous forests. Chief trees are pine, fir, spruce and larch. These comprise the great soft wood forests of the world. Population is sparse. Wood cutting is the chief occupation.
It is also known as Laurentian type and includes Eastern Canada, North-East United States, South East Siberia, Manchuria and North Japan. Winters are cold and summers are warm. Rainfall is well distributed throughout the year.
Here the forests are mixed with coniferous and deciduous trees. Wheat, barley, oats, etc., are cultivated. This region is densely populated, and industrially well developed. Lumbering, fishing, dairy-farming and agriculture are also carried on.
It includes North Europe, North Asia and North Canada. Its climate is extremely cold and the ground remains covered with snow almost all the year. Winters are long and summers are short. Summer temperature is under 50°F.
The rainfall is usually under 10 inches. Mosses grow in short summer. The only animal which can exist here is reindeer. Population is sparse, and people lead a nomadic life and are known as Eskimos.