Biotic resources are derived from living things and are the most fundamental of resources.
They account for 85 per cent of the world’s food. They provide raw materials for the manufacturing industry. Even coal and oil are included in the biotic resources because they are created from plant and animal fossils. The abiotic resources include metallic and non-metallic minerals, water, etc. These resources are generally of exhaustible nature. Their usefulness depends on their concentration and accessibility.
On the basis of continual utility, resources can be inexhaustible; such resources include sunlight, air, water, rocks, sand, clay etc. Exhaustible resources include renewable resources, like soil and forests, and non-renewable ones, like minerals and fuels. Then, there are some cyclic resources like water, paper and metal scrap.
When the resources have been put to some useful economic purpose, they are said to have been developed, otherwise they remain potential resources. Running water in streams is a potential resource for electricity generation unless it is dammed and used to produce electricity.
Raw materials are those resources which are processed to produce finished goods for direct consumption while energy resources fuel these processes. Raw materials may be from various sources.
Cotton, jute, silk, wool, textiles and sugar.
Paper and pulp, lac, timber, gum, resin.
Fish, crabs, oysters, prawns, lobsters.
Wool, meat fur, milk products.
Minerals ad fossil fuels.
Power resources include coal, petroleum, gas, hydel power, nuclear power, solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, biomass and tides. These resources are used either directly as fuels or to generate electricity.
Agricultural land is the most basic and vast resource from which are produced cereals, beverages, oilseeds, rubber, sugar, spices, beet, vegetables and fibres. Grasslands support livestock farming to produce meat, milk, hides, fur and wool.