10 Common Faults Committed while Making Bread

This article throws light upon the ten common faults committed while making bread. The faults are: 1. Flaked Crust also Known as Flying Tops 2. Lack of Volume 3. Uneven Texture, Showing Large Irregular Holes 4. Lack of Shine on the Crust 5. Lack of Flavour and Aroma 6. Stales Rapidly 7. Crumbly Bread 8. Lack of Colour on Crust 9. Raw Inside 10. Rope.

Fault # 1. Flaked Crust also known as Flying Tops:

If fermented dough is left uncovered in an atmosphere which is not saturated with moisture (80-85 per cent), water evaporates from the surface of the dough leaving the skin dry. This skin, once formed, is difficult to eliminate and when a skinny dough is knocked back, scaled, and moulded; the dry skin, breaks off and some which remain on the exterior will get folded into the dough and show as whitish coloured patches which are hard and knotty.

When moulded dough pieces become skinned and it will give an unsatisfactory bloom of the crust. Also there will be a number of bursts or ‘flying tops’.

Fault # 2. Lack of Volume:

Bread not fermented enough has a lack of volume. This fault can be said to be a direct effect of the insufficient ripening of the gluten. It has already been discussed in detail how fermentation affects the gluten structure and the final flavour of the bread.

Over fermentation may also be a reason for lack of volume in bread. Longer fermentation time increases the acid production giving a very sour taste. This activity will weaken the gluten for lack of volume and large holes. It will also give a bad structure to the baked bread which will begin to crumble easily.

Other reasons for lack of volume are:

i. Breads not proved for required length of time;

ii. Due to improper mixing of the dough, the gluten does not develop, which is directly responsible for the volume of the bread;

iii. Too much salt in dough;

iv. Less yeast in the dough;

v. too high oven temperatures.

Fault # 3. Uneven Texture, Showing Large Irregular Holes:

i. When the dough is not fermented long enough the gluten will not reach its maximum extensibility. As the gluten is not fully extended, the loaf will be smaller in volume. Also, some of the smaller gluten strands will break down under the expansion pressure of the gas, creating irregular large sized holes in the baked product.

ii. Use of over fermented dough.

iii. Under proved bread may show a crack on the base, thereby giving an irregular shape to the bread.

Fault # 4. Lack of Shine on the Crust:

i. Under fermented bread. The sheen of the crumb depends upon the structure of the gluten formation, as kneading increases number of fine glossy cell surfaces to reflect the light. Greater the web like structure of the gluten greater will be the reflection of the light.

ii. Use of over fermented dough.

Fault # 5. Lack of Flavour and Aroma:

i. Use of under fermented bread.

ii. Use of over fermented dough, which also gives a slightly acidic flavour to the bread.

Fault # 6. Stales Rapidly:

i. Bread not fermented for required time.

ii. Not enough salt used in dough.

iii. Over proved bread.

Fault # 7. Crumbly Bread:

i. Use of over fermented dough.

ii. Use of over proofed dough.

iii. Not enough fat used in dough.

Fault # 8. Lack of Colour on Crust:

i. Use of over fermented dough.

ii. Insufficient sugar in the dough.

Fault # 9. Raw Inside:

i. Under baking of the bread.

ii. Baking done in high temperature, whereby the crust has got a colour but is doughy in the center.

Fault # 10. Rope:

Rope is one of the main diseases that affect the bread. The spores of bacillus mesentericus vulgatus, the microorganisms, is responsible the development of the rope. It is usually present in the flour itself. This is not apparent until the bread is some hours old. This develops in the form of patchiness and the crumb becomes sticky.

At the same time a peculiar odour similar to that of pineapple develops. This will occur only when the spore is given suitable conditions for it to develop, increase, grow, and so produce an attack of the disease. These conditions include warmth, moistness, and a deficiency of acid in the medium.

Spores cannot develop in an acid medium. Also as the spores require warm weather rather than the cold, it becomes even more important to cool the bread quickly and completely. This can prevent by the using sour dough in the making of the bread, as sour dough will have a sufficient acid content to prevent the formation of rope. This is also called the ‘mature parent dough’ method.

Submitted by : Professor Serenity, Category : Bread, Tag : Faults in Bread Making