The final act of conference on security and cooperation in European signed by NATO countries and all the countries of Eastern Europe in Helsinki on Aug. 1, 1975, it is known as Helsinki agreements or Helsinki accords. It is an unusual document that is not comparable to other regional instruments for the promotion and protection of human rights.
Louis Henkin has argued that “it clearly precludes any suggestion that matters its deal with are within domestic jurisdiction and beyond the reach of appropriate inquiry” The Helsinki agreements is the Gentlemen’s agreements and its instrument in international relation and their violation brings important political and moral consequences. The moral undertaking was the acknowledgement that the fundamental standard of human rights is prominent in foundation for durable peace.
This is final act legitimizes the principles that human rights protection is an essential ingredient of security and co-operation. Recognition of this principle is embodied in an agreement continues the multilateral process initiated by the conference with follow up meeting featuring the thorough exchange of view” regarding the tasks defined by the final act. This act has no enforcement mechanism.
These is vacuum in implementation has been filled by government spokesman, intergovernmental organization, religious organization, parliamentary commission which undertaken to investigate the implementation of final act.
This act is new hopes for the provoked the interest of human rights and also monitoring the human rights violation. It generally took the view that discussion of specific charges of human rights abuses and work for the protection of human rights includes freedom of association, travel; religion and special protection of organization and individual who monitors human rights conditions. In field of human rights, the final acts proclaim that:-
“The participating states will act in conformity with the purpose and principles of charter of United Nation and with universals declaration of human rights. They will also fulfill their obligations as set forth with the international declaration and agreements in this field, including inter alia the international covenant or Human rights by which they may be bound.”
This final act primarily concerned with international security with states and the provisions concerning human rights. It provides that everyone has the rights. It provides that everyone has the rights to number of fundamental freedoms. It is “Declaration on principles guiding relation between participatory states”. These declarations have set of 10 fundamental principles:
(1) Sovereign equality and respect for rights inherent in sovereignty.
(2) Refraining from the threat or use of force.
(3) Invisibility of frontiers
(4) Territorial integrity of states
(5) Peaceful settlement of disputes
(6) Non intervention in internal affairs.
(7) Equal rights and self-determination of peoples
(8) Cooperation among states.
(9) Respect for human rights and fundamental freedom includes freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief.
(10) Fulfillment in good faith of obligations under the international law.
All these principles are explained in detail in the final act. It concerned with principle relating to human rights and fundamental freedoms. This act has mainly 4 main principles points.
Firstly, the participating states will respect human rights and all fundamental freedoms” freedom of thought, conscience, religions. Secondly, the participating states promise to promote and encourage the effective exercise of civil, political, social, cultural and other rights and freedom. Thirdly, the participating states will respect the rights of minorities. This text is related to Article 27 of covenant on civil and political rights. Fourthly, there are two references in text to human rights works in United Nations. It promotes and protects the human right and peaceful settlement of disputes.
Various human right commissioner call attention to need of realism in demising international human rights institution that will be effective and valid. This institution must have global support to gain acceptance by states and people as they create norms to implement human rights. This human right can be effectively implemented through education, supervision, diplomatic actions by which people can believe and developed human rights implementation and protection.